Present tenses-form & function

PRESENT SIMPLE TENSES
Present Simple
Form:
• I, you we, they see / don’t see...
• He, she it sees / doesn’t see
Do you see? Yes I do/no I don’t
»see 3rd person endings

Present Simple Passive
Form:
(subject + am/is/are + past participle)
• I am seen
• He/she/ it is seen
• You we, they are seen
Is he seen .......? Yes he is/No he isn’t

 

1) HABITS / ROUTINES

“I work here at weekends”
"I play tennis every Friday"

3) SCHEDULES

“I go to Berlin tomorrow then I fly to Brussels on Wednesday, then I have a meeting in Copenhagen on Friday"

4) FILM REVIEWS

“The film is set in Northumberland. Jane visits a long lost cousin and before long strange things start to happen. At first she puts it down to tiredness from the trip but after a while she realises that there's something very wrong"

PASSIVE FUNCTION - same as active but with focus on passive subject

"This tea is imported from India."

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSES
Present Continuous
Form:
• I'm seeing / not seeing
• He, she it is seeing / isn’t seeing
We, you they are seeing/aren't (are not) seeing
Are you seeing?
"Yes I am / no I'm not"
Present Continuous Passive
Form:
(subject + am/is/are + being + past participle)
• I am being seen
• He/she/ it is being seen
• You we, they are being seen
Is he being seen .......?
"Yes he is / No he isn’t"

 

2) TEMPORARY SITUATIONS

"I’m staying with friends until I find a flat"

4) CRITICISM (+ ALWAYS)

"You're always leaving dirty cups in the living room!"

PASSIVE FUNCTION - same but with focus on the passive subject

"The letters are being sent across later."

PRESENT PERFECT TENSES
Present Perfect Simple
Form:
• I, you we, they have seen / haven’t seen...
• He, she it has seen / hasn’t seen
Have you seen...? "Yes I have / no I haven’t"
»see 3rd person endings

Present Perfect Simple Passive
Form:
(subject + have/has + been + past participle)

•I , you, we, they have been seen
• He/she/ has been seen
• You we, they are seen
• Has he been seen .......? "Yes he has / No he hasn’t"

 

 

1) ACTIONS COMPLETED IN UNFINISHED PAST TIME

"Have you ever eaten sushi?"

2) PAST ACTIONS WHICH ARE RELEVANT NOW

"I’ve had my hair cut. Haven't you noticed?"

3) UNFINISHED ACTIONS / STATES

“I've always lived on this street"

4) TO REFER TO THE QUANTITIY OF ACTIONS COMPLETED UP TO NOW

"He's been to Italy three times in the past month"

PASSIVE FUNCTION - same as active but with focus on passive subject

“Has he been seen by a doctor yet?."

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES
Present Perfect Continuoes
Form:
• I, you we, they have been seeing / haven’t been seeing...
He, she it has been seeing / hasn’t been seeing...
• Have you been seeing? "Yes I have /no I haven’t"

Present Perfect Simple Passive
Form:
NOT NORMALLY USED IN PASSIVE

 

 

1) RECENTLY FINISHED ACTIONS WHICH ARE STILL EVIDENT

“Sorry my hands are so dirty. I've been gardening"

2) TEMPORARY UNFINISHED / RECENTLY FINISHED ACTIONS

"I’ve been staying here as my flat was flooded."

3) TO FOCUS ON THE DURATION OF AN ACTION TO THE PRESENT MOMENT

“She's been reading that book for at least two hours"

PASSIVE FUNCTION

NOT NORMALLY USED IN PASSIVE